CCSVI is a chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency. This is a medical condition that occurs when the outflow of blood from the brain and spinal cord is disturbed. There may be many causes of this disease: constriction of veins, blockages, valve damage or other deformations that prevent proper blood flow.
Based on the hypothesis, in patients diagnosed with CCSVI, venous blood remains in the central nervous system for too long or retreats to the brain or spinal cord due to reflux. This should lead to a cascade of biological effects, the final stage of which is inflammation and demyelination, as in multiple sclerosis.
The study of Professor Zamboni has laid the foundations for further researches in the field of CCSVI endovascular therapy. The topic remains open and controversial, especially the theory under which venous pathology could be the primary pathomechanism of the autoimmune process.
CCSVI therapy is also known as the "liberation procedure", which aims to eliminate venous deformations by means of a vascular angioplasty procedure. The elimination of deformations is intended to ensure proper blood flow from the brain and spinal cord. After such procedures, a temporary and permanent improvement in neurological condition has been observed for a number of patients with multiple sclerosis.