Can the procedure be dangerous for the patient's health or life?

Any medical intervention can be dangerous for the patient's health or life.

What are the possible side effects of the procedure?

Symptoms/side effects that require further treatment, medication or medical intervention:

  • bleeding, bruising, swelling, pain or discomfort at the puncture site;
  • headache, nausea after anaesthesia or contrast agent;
  • relapse of disease symptoms caused by restenosis, i.e. re-constriction of veins;
  • infection;
  • problems with local anaesthesia, which may require further anaesthetic injection or to choose another method of anaesthesia;
  • nerve damage, which is usually temporary and subsides. Permanent nerve damage is rare;
  • re-puncture of the vein due to lack of access to the selected vein;
  • rupture of the blood vessel;
  • allergy to injected drugs/contrast agent;
  • damage to muscles, nerves, organs;
  • excessive bleeding from the injection site or blood clots;
  • stroke or heart attack;
  • toxicity of the body caused by medication and contrast agent;
  • exposure to X-rays;
  • death may occur as a result of any medical procedure. In the case of this procedure, death has never occurred.
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